Marching is usually a military necessity executed to bring troops into advantageous or strategic positions at or near the battle line. It is, therefore, necessary to take well-known precautions in order that the men may arrive at their destination in the best physical condition and not completely fatigued. The starting hour is, of course, determined by the existing necessities. Whenever possible, however, it should be in the early morning when the men are fresh and active and the air is cool and stimulating. Unless unavoidable, strenuous marching during the heat of the day should not be attempted. Night marching should be practiced only when military necessity demands because of the depressing physical effects usually outweigh the advantage of strategic positions.

Previous to the start a light meal of bread, cereals, milk, tea, or coffee should be allowed. Marching with empty stomachs is weakening and therefore detrimental.

The length of the march for a division or a brigade under normal conditions should not exceed 12 or 15 miles daily. The length of a day's march, however, is not measured by miles, but according to the condition of the roads, the weather, the pace, the loads carried, etc.

The rate of the march should not average more than 2 miles per hour, inclusive of stops; more than this will lead to fatigue and exhaustion. To average this, 120 3o-inch steps a minute are required. The march should be at route order, in open ranks, half on, each side of the road, This decreases the heavy, devitalizing cloud of dust, foul odors, water vapor from perspiration, etc., which tends to hang over close-order ranks. The march should end with the same equal pace with which it started; the frequent "final spurt" should not be invoked as, at this stage, it is doubly depressing. The men should alternate between marching in step and at ease; singing and whistling popular tunes is to be encouraged. This distracts their minds• from their fatigued condition and is probably the surest way of preventing early exhaustion. Straggling, either from poor discipline or fatigue, is always to be avoided, as it is depressing to the "morale" of the entire body of troops. In hot weather, coats should be unbuttoned or removed on the march but replaced at halts. The position of the body should be inclined slightly forward, similar to the position in mounting a flight of stairs; This is especially to be advised if the soldier is carrying his full equipment. Marching rigidly erect necessitates the expanding of greater muscular effort and therefore early fatigue.

Smoking on the march has a depressing effect on the physical condition of the men, particularly upon the heart and lungs. It also had a tendency to cause the mouth to become dry, creating excessive thirst. This practice should be strictly prohibited.

Before the start only the average amount of water to a meal should be ingested and the water bottles filled with water, unsweetened tea, or coffee. Following this, the canteens should not be resorted to until 734 miles have been covered. The contents should then take the men to the end of the 15-mile march. The bottle should again be refilled at the end of every subsequent mile. The average normal requirements are one quart of water at the end of every 7.5 miles. The experienced soldier will march nearly all day with only an occasional recourse to his water

The experienced soldier will march nearly all day with only an occasional recourse to his water bottle and then drink very sparingly. The young and unwise will drink excessively every few miles, and as a consequence becomes "water-logged," perspires freely, tires easily, and refills his bottle from every strange, perhaps heavily contaminated, stream along the wayside. Water bottles should not be filled with these streams until the quality of the water is approved by the medical officer.

A fairly' satisfactory method of allaying the thirst while on the march is to suck on a small pebble placed in the mouth, to excite the flow of saliva, at the same time breathing through the nose.

A few words on flexion or bent knee marching might not be out of place. This is a method advocated by de Raoul and is patterned after the oriental couriers and footmen. In this type of marching, the body is bent forward at the hips, and the legs are bent at the knees, in such a manner that it gives the marching man the attitude of almost falling forward at each step. The displacement of the center of gravity of the body forward serves automatically at each step to drag 'the weight of the body along.

Unless this method is thoroughly understood and is systematically developed, any attempt to change the method of marching, which each soldier has developed as his peculiar, individual type, may not be productive of the best results.

To Lieutenant S. A. Folsom, MC, U. S. Navy, is acknowledged credit of the preparation of the major portion of the following chapters