The method of diagnosing foot affections by a casual inspection, walking or hopping test, or by palpating the foot has been discarded as obsolete and inefficient.

By the pedograph method, five prominent signs are taken into consideration. These signs are

1. The pedograph picture;

2. The contour line of the foot;

3. The height of the scaphoid bone (the keystone of the longitudinal arch);

4. The muscular development of the soles of the feet, especially under the longitudinal arch;

5. The presences or absence of the juvenile fat pad.

In taking the imprints the individual is seated and extending the leg the barefoot is painted with an iron solution. The formula of Iron Solution.

Tr. Ferric chloride 45 C.C.

Glycerine 5 c.c.

Alcohol 50 c.c.

Then hastily, the foot is placed on paper, porous in the charter, and the individual is told to place all the weight on the one foot. At this point, the contour line is drawn by using a pencil held at right angles to the plane surface. This contour line demonstrates the amount of inversion of the ankle although the muscular development of the soles of the feet should be watched as often a heavy bulging muscular layer will produce the picture of inversion. The foot is then removed from the paper and the height of the scaphoid bone estimated. This is done by drawing a line from the posterior-inferior aspect of the inner malleolus to the first metatarsophalangeal joint on its plantar aspect. The scaphoid bone is usually felt one-half inch below this line which is known as the Feiss Line. The sole of the foot is then palpated and the muscular development noted as thin, moderate or thick. The presence of the fat pad is also sought for. All this cumulative data is then marked on the geographic sheet together with the man's name, rank, organization. and diagnosis.

A solution of tannic acid is now applied to the iron imprint of the foot which turns a jet black. The formula of the tannic acid solution

Tannic acid gm. x (by it.)

Alcohol 90 c.o.

The baselines and auxiliary lines are now drawn on the pedograph for estimation of the disability if present.

The first base line is drawn from a point posterior to the internal malleolus to the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The contour line extending beyond this shows the degree of inversion. The line of axis weight bearing is next drawn from the center of the heel to a point midway between the first and second toes. A line 0 is next drawn at right angles to the line of axis weight bearing from a point posterior to the heel. A line M is next drawn also at right angles to the line, of axis weight bearing, from the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Midway between the line ill and 0 is drawn the line of estimation, also at right angles to the line of axis weight bearing. The line of estimation is then checked. One check is placed

safety shoes

safety shoes

safety shoes

at the outer border of the imprint, the other check being placed at the junction of the line of estimation and the first base line, or if valgus exists, at the junction of the line of estimation and the contour line. Midway between the two check marks of the line of estimation is the point N which is normal. To the inner side of point N the line is divided into three parts representing the degrees of Pes Planus, while to the outer side of the point N the line is divided into three parts representing the degrees of Pes Cavus. The above method, with the exception of some modifications, was originated and used by Dr. Edward A. Rice of Washington, D. C.