Where the shoe is either too large, too small, or too old with wrinkled and broken drill lining there inevitably results in friction, pressure, and impact. These three factors are paramount in the causation of callosities, corns, blisters, abrasions. tender and sore feet. So, in the examination of a shoe searching for the causative agent of foot disability, the fact that the shoe may be too large, too small, or too old, should be borne in mind. The part that the socks play will be discussed under that heading. Where the injuries above enumerated occur the shoe should be examined thoroughly for the points mentioned

1. Top of toes—toe cap too low, leather stiff, improper construction;

2. Ends of toes—shoe too short, loosely laced, improper construction;

3. Outer sides of big and little toes—shoe too narrow across the instep.

4. Over the instep—tightly laced shoes, uneven wrinkled tongue;

5. Along the outer and inner margins of the sole of the feet—faulty internal construction resulting in the thick inner edge of insole or warping or curling of the latter

6. On the sole of the feet—inequalities o1 the inner sole caused by the warping of the leather or shifting of the fill (layer below the insole.)

The shoes being the most important part of the soldier's equipment and the backbone of an infantry organization's efficiency; it is essential and imperative that an elementary knowledge, at least, of their care, be part of the officer's knowledge.

This knowledge should be imparted to the men at each and every opportunity where the occasion offers itself.

To make the foot covering as waterproof as possible under ordinary conditions the sole and welt should be thoroughly oiled with neatsfoot oil, bacon rind (salt removed b s soaking) or in emergencies with machine oil of good quality as used in the lubrication of the rifle. Where constant exposure to water and cold is anticipated the upper as well should be thorough.1, oiled by application of the oil and rubbing and kneading of the leather. Judgment, however, should be practiced in oiling the uppers because too much oil is a detri.. meat, in that it clogs the pores of the leather making the latter impermeable and preventing the moisture of the foot from evaporating. This condition of the shoe, then, is corn parable to rubber which is also impermeable.

Where the shoes have become water soaked from continued wetting do not place them too near a fire as such quick drying causes stiffness and hardness of the leather with the production of corns, blisters, abrasions and similar affections. From the action of rapid drying, also, it should be noted that the leather decomposes and disintegrates quickly lessening the life of the shoe. Where haste is necessary pebbles may be heated and repeated13 placed in the shoe and agitated until a sufficient degree of dryness has been obtained. Hot cloths may be placed in the shoe or oats which absorb moisture readily.

The shoes being dried by whatever method chose, they should be thoroughly brushed and the leather kneaded with the fingers until supple. Wet shoes should never be exposed to the elements in freezing weather as the leather will become frozen. Should the shoes issued be lined with drill ducking this should be examined frequently to see if it is torn, wrinkled or lying smoothly in the shoe cavity. Dress shoes used for liberty should be kept brushed and polished constantly if long life is to be expected of the leather. As a preventive measure troops should be urged to examine the shoe cavity for protruding nails, wrinkles of leather or drill ducking and other inequalities of the surface. Broad laces should be used and placed sufficiently for the march to hold the heel in place and prevent shifting of the foot forward in the shoe. The tongue of the shoe should be smooth, free of wrinkles and lie evenly under the laces.