Because of the inherent facility of the layman to attribute any and every foot ill to fiat-foot or a tendency thereto, many of the uninitiated and inexperienced, influenced by the popular trend of belief, readily diagnose this condition as such. That such a step has a verb decided and marked effect on the neurotic individual and gives many persons the golden opportunity to malinger, is self-evident.

To begin with the reader should thoroughly understand that this affection is often associated with a visibly normal foot or foot posture where the Ligament ts have not " given " ( w stretched or with a visibly abnormal foot or foot posture where the ligaments have "given." In short, the condition may be functional or organic. Whenever there appears a local: reddened, painful swelling in addition to other symptoms infection should be suspected

This condition usually occurs in the ease of the raw recruit from a recent sedentary occupation, whose foot muscles have not been given the chance to develop gradually. However, it may happen in an individual, a veteran may be, who has recently recovered from some debilitating infectious disease with a consequent loss of muscular tone and strength, or in the hardened soldier who has been marched far past his limit of endurance. Exceptions occur where the gradually trained man is affected during his period of training, despite all precautions. These exceptions depend upon individual physical idiosyncracies.

Where a burden is borne by muscles not developed to meet that special requirement and where the muscles are not given a sufficient period of reaction or rest there results from condition of muscular fatigue, acute or chronic. Together with this there may be some tearing of the fibers constituting the muscular bundles due to overstretching of the latter. The muscles, being fatigued or torn, fail to support the burden and shift the responsibility to the tough fibrous ligaments. These are not supplied by nerves; give no sensation of pain, and are inelastic. Because of their inelasticity weight applied directly causes a transmission of tension to the periosteum (covering of bone) to which they are attached'. The periosteum being richly supplied with nerves and having traction applied to it give rise to the sensation of pain. The degree of pain will vary according to amount of traction exerted by the ligaments on the periosteum. According to the weight borne, degree of strain and consequent shifting of the burden he ligaments will depend whether the latter stretch or no T. This whole sequence of events, as described, may be caused by an excess of use or load for that individual, or use in an improper manner. The symptoms are very inconstant, elusive and deceiving at times. Pain and soreness may occur under the arch, over the arch, surface of the heel, ball of the foot, outer border of the foot or in the calf muscles. Characteristic of the pain is its sudden acute appearance, and increasing intensity when use is attempted. This pain often severe and lancinating may skip from place to place or remain stationary. To diagnose this condition requires the attention of a surgeon. However, the condition may be suspected when the arch and scaphoid bone in examination are found well up and the muscular development of the sole of the foot is fair or good

Feet presenting such severe symptoms necessarily conduce to the inefficiency of the organization and demand the attention of the regimental or orthopedic surgeon. However, until surgical attention can be procured, simple measures may be undertaken for temporary relief in mild cases. The feet should be treated by alternatingly immersing them first into a bucket of hot water and then into one of cold water for about a period of ten minutes three times a day. This is the "contrast bath" which aids in alleviating the symptoms by bringing more blood to the part for repair of damage and also causes an increased tone of the muscles both of the feet and blood vessels. Massage, with short quick strokes, applied to the arch and other points of pain is also beneficial and should be practiced three times a day for about ten-minute periods.

The common liniments or plain ethyl (grain) alcohol may be used

Upon retiring at night, an elastic bandage applied to the foot and holding it in position of adduction and supination is very helpful

To affect a static correction the heels of the shoes may be raised inch on the inner side by the insertion of leather wedges between the lifts. The use an artificial supports. extensively advertised at present, is n compatible with the pedestrian activity of militarN. life. However, in very urgent cases, they may be used for short periods; the individual being placed on light duty until the condition is alleviated when the supports are discarded.

In all cases where foot strain has been incurred gradually increased exertion and weight bearing must be practiced if a recurrence is to be avoided.